A reader called asking for information on first aid preparation before it might be needed. She specified certain trauma situations such as being hit by a car, drowning, or entanglement in electrical wires.
In the first two accidental traumas, the main thing is to check to see if the dog is unconscious or dead. If the animal is breathing and has a heartbeat, there is no question, but if the vital signs are absent, then emergency measures are called for, such as mouth to snout resuscitation and external heart massage.
For a dog pulled from the water, it might be necessary to hold the animal upside down momentarily and apply moderate pressure just below the rib cage to expel any water in the lungs before commencing with mouth to snout resuscitation.
For those squeamish about putting a dog's snout in your mouth, include in your first aid kit a clean square of thin material such as cotton batiste to place over the muzzle. Call your veterinarian and plan to transport as soon as possible. Remember, if the dog requires resuscitation, someone else will have to drive because you will be busy breathing for the animal and stimulating its heart.